Venkataramanan R. V, Chitra V, Raju D, Sumithra M, Prakash M. P, Goswami H. Evaluation of Antirheumatic Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Syzygium Cumini Stem Bark in Rats. Biomed Pharmacol J 2016;9(2).
Manuscript received on :March 10, 2016
Manuscript accepted on :April 17, 2016
Published online on: 10-08-2016
How to Cite    |   Publication History
Views Views: (Visited 305 times, 1 visits today)   Downloads PDF Downloads: 354
Evaluation of Antirheumatic Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Syzygium Cumini Stem Bark in Rats

Venkataramanan R. V, Chitra V, Raju D, Sumithra M, Maid Priyanka Prakash and Harika Goswami

Department of Pharmacology, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM College of Pharmacy Kattankulathur. Tamil Nadu.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:



Syzygiumcuminiis a folklore plant traditionally indicated to treat various inflammatory disorders. In this study anti rheumatic activity of oral administration of petroleum ether extract of Syzygiumcumini stem bark at the doses of 50,500,750,1000, mg/kg on complete Freund’s complete adjuvant induced arthritis has been studies in rats. The treatment is assessed by measuring the paw volume, body weight, arthritic index, and rheumatoid factor. The investigated result showed that the extract inhibited the CFA induced arthritis in dose dependent manner and this effect was more significant (P<0.05) with 1000mg/kg dose. The standard drugs Indomethacin (10mg/kg), dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg) also produce significant anti rheumatic effect in rats and is compared with test drug. The result suggest that the petroleum ether extract of Syzgiumcuministem bark produced significant anti-rheumatic effect.


Syzygiumcumini; Indomethacin; dexamethasone; Freund’s complete adjuvant

Download this article as: 
Copy the following to cite this article:

Venkataramanan R. V, Chitra V, Raju D, Sumithra M, Prakash M. P, Goswami H. Evaluation of Antirheumatic Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Syzygium Cumini Stem Bark in Rats. Biomed Pharmacol J 2016;9(2).

Copy the following to cite this URL:

Venkataramanan R. V, Chitra V, Raju D, Sumithra M, Prakash M. P, Goswami H. Evaluation of Antirheumatic Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Syzygium Cumini Stem Bark in Rats. Biomed Pharmacol J 2016;9(2). Available from:


Arthritis is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints [1-2]. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune multisystem disease characterized by joint inflammation, morning stiffness, and destruction of articular tissues and restricted joint movement [3-5].  Arthritis can cause severe disability and ultimately affects a person’s ability to carry out normal tasks, restricts the quality of life and causes premature death [6]. Any part of the body can become inflamed or painful from arthritis. Arthritis is the most common inflammatory disorders affecting approximately 0.5-1.0% of the global adult population, with female being affected three times more than males [7-9]. RA still remains a formidable disease, producing severe crippling deformities and functional disabilities and cartilage destruction and commonly leads to significant disability, caused by no. of pro-inflammatory molecules released by macrophages including reactive oxygen species and eicosanoids such as, cytokines, leukotrienes, and prostaglandin. The regulation of these mediators secreted by macrophages and other immune cells[10] and modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by inhibiting enzymes like Cox and LOX are the potential target for chronic inflammatory conditions[11].

The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis varies between 0.3% and 1% worldwide and is more in developed countries. It mainly affects women that man (3:1). Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory illness with a prevalence of approximately 0.75% in India.[12] .

Syzygiumcumini(L) is an important medicinal plant used for treatment of diabetes , ulcers, some pharmacological activity like anti-allergic, gastro protective, anti-oxidant, anti-fertility, anti-viral.

Materialsl and Methods

Plant Materials

The stem bark of Syzygiummcumini was collected from natural habit and around Hyderabad. The plant was aunthentifed by Prof. P Jayaraman, PARC Chennai.

Reg no of Certificate: PARC/2010/652.

Preparation of Extract

The collected stem bark of Syzygiummcumini was cleaned, dried in the shade and cut in to coarse powder and extracted with petroleum ether as solvent. The extraction of petroleum ethers extract is done by using soxhlet apparatus b hot percolation method. The extraction is carried with 2 litres of solvent for a period of 72 hours. At the end of extraction the yields was in brown oil and it was concentrated in vaccum at 400C using a rotary evaporator and the residues was stored in a freezer at -800C for further tests.


Male wistar rats of approximately the same age, weighing about 150-200g was selected for the study. There were housed in the polypropylene cages and  were giving feed with standard diet and water ad libitum.The study has got approved from IAEC(Institutional  Animal Ethical Committee) of CPCSEA.

Acute Toxicity Studies

Acute toxicity study was performed for petroleum ether extract according to acute toxic classic method as per OECD guidelines.

Induction of Arthritis [13]

Arthritis was induced in all the animals of each group by an intra-dermal injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant suspension of 0.1ml in the planter surface of left hind paw which contains 1.0 mg dry heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis per millilitre sterile paraffin oil. Acute inflammation in the form of paw edema was produced after injecting CFA suspension.

Result and Discussion

Table 1: Effect of drugs on paw volume on different days of observation

Group Mean paw volume(ml) on different Days
1 3 5 7 9 13 21
Control 0.9±0.06 0.95±0.10 0.9±0.06 0.85±0.10 0.8±0.08 0.7±0.06 0.7±0.06
Dexamethasone 0.95±0.05 0.75±0.05 0.55±0.05 0.45±0.10 0.35±0.05 0.15±0.05 0.1±0.06
Indomethacin 0.85±0.05 0.65±0.05 0.45±0.13 0.3±0.06 0.2±0.0 0.1±0.06 0.05±0.05
SCPE 50 0.95±0.10 1.05±0.05 1±0.08 0.85±0.05 0.8±0.08 0.75±0.1 0.7±0.10


SCPE500 0.9±0.06 0.95±0.05 0.9±0.06 0.85±0.05 0.8±0.00 0.65±0.05 0.6±0.00
SCPE 750 0.8±0.00 0.95±0.05 0.9±0.06 0.7±0.06 0.5±0.06 0.35±0.05 0.3±0.006
SCPE 1000 0.75±0.05 0.85±0.05


0.75±0.05 0.0.55±0.05 0.35±0.05 0.2±0.05 0.15±0.05


Table 2: Effect of Drugs on body weight.

Group Changes in the body weight
1 3 5 7 9 13 21
Control 0 0 -6 -10 -12.5 -18.5 20
Dexamethasone 0 0 -3.75 -4.75 -5.25 -7 -8.25
Indomethacin 0 -5 -6.5 -8.25 -6.25 -6.25 -8
SCPE 50 0 -3.75 -6.25 -7.5 -13.75 -15.5 -17.25


SCPE500 0 -2.5 -1.25 0 -2.25 -5.25 -10.05
SCPE 750 0 0 -1.25 3.75 -7.5 -9 0.3±0.006
SCPE 1000 0 -1.25


-2.5 -3.75 -5 -6.75 -8.75


Table 3: Effect of drugs on arthritic index.

  Control Dex Indo SCPE50 SCPE500 SCPE750 SCPE1000
Mean 5 2.25 4.25 5.5 4.75 4.25 3.5
SD 0.816 0.957 0.957 0.577 0.957 1.258 0.577
SE 0.408 0.478 0.478 0.288 0.478 0.629 0.2088
P Value <0.05 <0.05



Freund’s complete adjuvant induced arthritis model are extensively used to study the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis for testing therapeutics. One of the reasonfor the wide utilization of this model is due to strong correlation between efficacy of therapeutic agents in the model and in rheumatoid arthritis in human and it is characterized by very rapid erosive disease. In adjuvant arthritis bacterial peptidoglycan and muramyl dipeptide are responsible for arthritis induction. It occurs through cell mediated autoimmunity by structural mimicry between myco bacterial and cartilage proteoglycans in rats.

The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of Petroleum ether extract of Syzygiumcumini which is very was reported to contain betulinic acid, beta sitosterol, friedelin, epi-friedelanol, gallic acid.

In the present study involves the release of number of mediators like cytokines, granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor, interferons. These mediators are responsible for the pain, destruction of bone and cartilage that can lead severe disability. Paw swelling is one of the major factors in assessing the degree of inflammation and therapeutic efficacy of the drugs.

The pain, inflammation and swelling of joints in arthritis can be greatly reduced by different compounds of Syzygiumcumini. In contrast to the traditional NSAIDs which are reported to produce gastric ulceration and bleeding. But this plant has been reported to have gastro protective effect.

From the previous studies bark, seed leaves extract of this plant are having anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antibacterial activity.

Change in body weight has also been used to assess the course of disease and the response to the therapy of anti-inflammatory drugs. Adjuvant arthritis is characterized by reduced weight loss and the body weight loss is associated with increased production of pro inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1. Test drug showed significance increase the body weight as that of the vehicle control group.

In the present study the test extract in the doses of 750, and 1000mg/kg had anti-inflammatory effect as it decreased the paw edema significantly. Results of this study are in agreement to the available literatures.


The present studty was designed to evaluate the Anti rheumatic activity of petroleum ether extract of Syzygiumcumini stem bark.

The petroleum ether extract of Syzygiumcumin  bark had a better effect on controlling CFA induced rheumatoid arthritis.


  1. The free dictionary.Com >arthritis in turning citing:The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright 2000.The American Heritage Science Dictionary Copy right 2005
  2. Collins Collins English Dictionary-Complete & Unabridged 11th edition. Retrieved Novermber 21,2012.
  3. Patil MVK, Kandhare AD, Bhise SD. Anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity of Xanthium strumarium ethanolic extract in Freund’s complete adjuvant induced arthritis. Biomed Aging Pathol 2012;2:6-15.
  4. Paval J, Kitheri SK, Potu BK, Govindan S, Kumar RS, Narayanan SN, et al. Anti-arthritic potential of the platnJusticiagendarussaBurnm F. Clinics 2009;64:357-62.
  5. Banji D, PInnapureddy J, Banji OFJ, Kumar AR, Reddy KN. Evaluation of the concomitant use of methotrexate and curcumin on Freund’s complete adjuvant-induced arthritis and haematological indices in rats. Indian J pharmaol 2011;43:546-50.
  6. Murugananthan G, Kumar SG, Sathya CP, Mohan S. Anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory constituents from medicinal plants. J App Pharm Sc2013;3:161-4.
  7. Mali SM, Sinnathambi A, Kapase CU, Bodhankar SL. Anti-arthritic activity of standardised extract of Phyllanthusamarus in Freund’s complete adjuvant induced arthritis. Biomed Aging Pathol2011;1:185-90.
  8. Ahlmen M, Svensson B, Albertsson K, Forslind K, Hafstrom I, Barfor Study Group. Influence of gender on assessments of disease activity and function in early rheumatoid arthritis in relation to radiographic joint damage. Ann Rheum Dis 2010;69:230-3.
  9. Patel P, Patel D, Patel N. Experimental investigation of anti-rheumatoid activity of Pleurotussajorcajuin adjuvant-induced arthritic in rats. Chin J Nat Med 2012;10:0269-74
  10. Shin HY, Yeong-tang inhibits the stem cell factor-induced migration and inflammatory cytokines secretion in mas cells. Ethanopharmacology2003;85:157-161.
  11. Kore KJ, Shete RV, Anti-Arthritic activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Lawsoniainnermisagainst adjuvant arthritis. J. Drug dev & research 2011;3(4):217-224.
  12. Gabriel SE, Crow son CS, Kremers HM. Survival in rheumatoid arthritis: a potential-based analysis of trends over 40 years. Arthritis Rheum 2003;48:54-58.
  13. Patil MVK, Kandhare AD, Bhise SD. Anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity of Xanthium srtumarium L. ethanolic extract in Freund’s complete adjuvant induced arthritis. Biomed Aging Pathol. 2012;2(1):6–15.
Share Button
(Visited 305 times, 1 visits today)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.