Manuscript accepted on :13-Sep-2018
Published online on: 05-10-2018
Plagiarism Check: Yes
Reviewed by: Cenker Zeki Koyuncuoğlu
Second Review by: Abel Abbas
Final Approval by: Dr. Ayush Dogra
Salivary pH, Flow Rate and Streptococcus Mutans Count in Relation to Oral Health Status Among Colored Eyes Adolescents in Baghdad/Iraq
Department of Pedodontics, Orthodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Kufa University.
Corresponding Author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Differences in susceptibility to dental caries occurs even under the similar, controlled conditions because of genetic variations, certain environmental factors are potentially more cariogenic for some individuals than for others. Salivary constituents differences may cause variation in caries susceptibility. This study was conducted to assess the salivary pH, flow rate and streptococcus mutans count in relation to oral health status among colored eyes adolescents. The study group included all 85 colored eyes adolescents from 6 secondary schools, while control group contained 85 brown eyes adolescents selected randomly from the same schools (12-15 for both groups, only males). Decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), plaque (PlI), Gingival (GI) and calculus (CI) indices were used to measure oral health status for both groups. Salivary samples collection was done in the morning at least one hour after breakfast, then normal saline was added to have tenfold dilutions, to assess the total colony counting of the caries related microorganisms (streptococcus mutans), after that inoculation was done in the special selective media (Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar). Counting of bacterial colonies were estimated by the aid of dissection microscope. Salivary pH and flow rate were measured directly. The data of present study was analyzed using SPSS version 21. The median and mean rank values for DMFT, PlI, GI and CI indices were higher in study group than control group with high significant differences with regard to DMFT and PlI. A strong positive correlation was recorded between DMFT and PlI, GI, CI in both groups. Salivary pH and flow rate were lower in study compared to the control group (statistically significant difference with salivary flow rate). Higher mean value of salivary streptococcus mutans count among study group compared to control group with statistical significant difference. Dental caries experience and streptococcus mutans count were higher in colored eyes adolescents than brown eyes adolescents. Oral hygiene and salivary flow rate were lower in study group than control group.
DMFT; PlI; Streptococcus MutansDownload this article as:
|Copy the following to cite this article:
Fahad A. H, Al-Huwaizi R. F, Al-Rubbaey Y. A, Alhuwaizi A. F. Salivary pH, Flow Rate and Streptococcus Mutans Count in Relation to Oral Health Status Among Colored Eyes Adolescents in Baghdad/Iraq. Biomed Pharmacol J 2018;11(4).
|Copy the following to cite this URL:
Fahad A. H, Al-Huwaizi R. F, Al-Rubbaey Y. A, Alhuwaizi A. F. Salivary pH, Flow Rate and Streptococcus Mutans Count in Relation to Oral Health Status Among Colored Eyes Adolescents in Baghdad/Iraq. Biomed Pharmacol J 2018;11(4). Available from: http://biomedpharmajournal.org/?p=23384
Dental caries refers to the localized destruction of susceptible dental hard tissues by acidic by-products from the bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates.1 which results from an ecological imbalance in the equilibrium between tooth minerals and oral biofilms (plaque).2 The biofilm is characterised by microbial activity, resulting in fluctuations in plaque pH. This is a result of both bacterial acid production and buffering action from saliva and the surrounding tooth structure. The tooth surface is therefore in a dynamic equilibrium with its surrounding environment. As the pH falls below a critical value, the demineralisation of enamel, dentine or cementum occurs, while a gain of mineral (remineralisation) occurs as the pH increases.3
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease. Environmental risk factors—such as dental plaque, cariogenic diet, insufficient fluoride exposure, poor oral hygiene, high numbers of cariogenic bacteria, and inadequate saliva flow—may influence the development of dental caries.4,5 As a general fact “A shift in microbial composition is an important step in the progression of oral disease”, however; this fact is emphasized by few studies. The shift in microorganisms of the mouth is closely related to the oral hygiene.6 Steptococcus mutans, a member of the oral micro flora, is considered to be the primary causative agent of dental caries (or tooth decay) and is one of the best known biofilm forming bacterium(7). There is a direct relation between streptococcus mutans levels in saliva and the number of colonized tooth sites and to their proportion in dental plaque.6,8 However, when exposed to the same levels of environmental risk factors, some patients may be more susceptible or resistant to caries than others. Those differences may be due to genetic factors in the etiopathogenesis of dental caries.9,10
To date, most genetic studies analyzed the problem of detecting a genetic factor contributing to caries by testing genetic variation, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific genes, for an association between variants at a genetic locus and caries. These genes can be grouped into categories based on the factor influencing dental caries. The major candidate gene categories to date include enamel formation genes, immune response genes, genes related to saliva, and genes related to taste and dietary habits (Vieira et al. 2014).11 This study was designed to assess the salivary pH, flow rate and streptococcus mutans count in relation to oral health status among colored eyes adolescents.
Materials and Methods
From six secondary schools, all colored eyes adolescents (eighty five) were included as study group while eighty five brown eyes adolescents selected randomly from the same schools as control group, with age range (12-15 for both groups, only males). All adolescents in both groups, caries experience measured through the application of decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT) for permanent teeth according to criteria of WHO.12 Oral hygiene status evaluated by application plaque index (PlI) of Silness and Löe13 and calculus index (CI) of Ramfjord.14 Gingival inflammation assessed by using Gingival Index (GI) of Löe and Silness.15
For salivary samples, each child was asked to sit down and relaxes much as possible and asked to chew a piece of Arabic gum for one minute before all the saliva was removed by expectoration; chewing was then continued for ten minutes with the same piece of gum and the collection of saliva by spitting was done during this time.16 Salivary flow rate assessed immediately by dividing the total volume of saliva collected in milliliter on the time of collection in minute. pH of saliva measured by using electronic pH meter.
After collection of the saliva, dilution was performed with normal saline. After that saliva was applied on the surface of the selective media by using micropipette (Mitis salivaris -Bacitracin agar medium are the selective medium for mutans streptococci). After incubation of the plates in an anaerobic atmosphere for 48 hours at 37°C, counting of CFU (colony forming units) with morphology characteristic of streptococcus mutans (numbers of CFU per milliliter of saliva).17
By using SPSS 21 version (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), frequency distribution for selected variables was done first. The statistical significance, direction and strength of linear correlation between two quantitative normally variables, one of which being non-normally distributed was measured by Spearman’s rank linear correlation coefficient. P value less than the 0.05 level of significance was considered statistically significant. All analyzed tests were bilateral.
The scoring of DMFT index was carried out in both groups. Table 1 and Table 2 show caries-experience (median and mean rank of DMFT) among study and control groups. The median ad mean rank values for DMFT were higher in study group than control group. Mann-Whitney test (p-value < 0.05) was used to compare between study and control groups. The result recorded a highly significant difference between the mean rank DMFT at study group when compared to the control group. For DMFT (Mann-Whitney value = 2359.500, Z = -3.941), as p-value <0.001 for the difference.
Table 1: Caries-experience (median) of DMFT of permanent teeth among study and control groups.
Table 2: Mean rank of DMFT of permanent teeth among study and control groups.
Table 3 illustrates median and mean rank values of plaque, gingival and calculus indices among study and control groups. The median and mean rank values of plaque, gingival and calculus indices in study group were found to be higher than control group with highly significant differences for plaque index (Mann-Whitney value = 2636.000, Z = -3.046, p-value = 0.002 ), while no significant differences in relation to gingival and calculus indices.
Table 3: Median and mean rank of plaque, gingival and calculus indices among study and control groups.
** Highly Significant
Table 4: Correlation coefficient between caries-experience of permanent teeth and plaque, gingival and calculus indices among study and control groups.
|DMFT||Study||0.762||< 0.001**||0.761||< 0.001**||0.723||< 0.001**|
|Control||0.914||< 0.001**||0.725||< 0.001**||0.850||< 0.001**|
** Highly Significant
The correlation coefficient between caries-experience of permanent teeth with PlI, GI and CI among study and control group is seen in Table 4. A strong positive correlation was recorded between DMFT and PlI, GI, CI in both groups with high significant differences.
Table 5 shows mean values of pH and flow rate (ml/min) in stimulated saliva among study and control groups. A lower value of salivary pH and flow rate were found among study compared to the control group, which was statistically significant with salivary flow rate (p-value = 0.024, t-value = -5.547, df = 168), while no significant difference with salivary pH.
Table 5: Mean values of salivary pH and flow rate among study and control groups with statistical difference.
|Groups||(Mean ± SD)||Statistical difference|
|pH||Study||6.89 ± 0.56||-4.209||168||0.886|
|Control||7.25 ± 0.54|
|Study||1.52 ± 0.30||-5.547||168||0.024*|
|Control||1.75 ± 0.24|
The mean values of salivary streptococcus mutans count among study and control groups is illustrated in Table 6. The result shows a higher mean value of salivary streptococcus mutans count among study group in contrast to control group with statistical significant difference (p-value = 0.029, t-value = 5.500, d.f = 168).
Table 6: Mean values of salivary streptococcus mutans count among study and control groups with statistical difference.
|Groups||No.||Streptococcus mutans CFU (×104/ml)
(Mean ± SD)
|Study||85||8.05 ± 2.63||5.500||168||0.029*|
|Control||85||6.07 ± 2.03|
The correlation coefficient between salivary streptococcus mutans count with salivary pH and flow rate among study and control group is shown in Table 7. A weak negative correlation was recorded between salivary streptococcus mutans count with salivary pH and flow rate in both groups with statistical significant difference regarding control group only (p-value = 0.019).
Table 7: Correlation coefficient between salivary streptococcus mutans count with salivary pH and flow rate among study and control groups.
Genes are the building blocks of human growth and development. They determine many characteristics, like hair and eye color. Genes also affect the way the immune system functions or how it responds to threats. Evidence of a genetic contribution to caries is based on: immune response , sugar metabolism and consumption, dental hard tissue and salivary flow, salivary constituents and salivary defense systems.18
One aspect of genetic effects is modification in immune response. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules have important roles in the immune responsiveness which is controlled by genes on the short arm of chromosome 6. Polymorphism in MHC molecules may cause some variations in immune responses against oral colonization levels between individuals and may influence an individual’s susceptibility to caries.19,20
In this study, the variation on oral health between colored eyes adolescents and brown eyes adolescents may attribute to differences in: inherited immune response, salivary streptococcus mutans counts, salivary flow rate and salivary constituents between two groups. There are no previous studies similar to this study to compare with. Further studies are needed to establish the exact factors responsible for these results.
- Selwitz R. H., Ismail A. I and Pitts N. B. Dental caries. Lancet. 2005;369:51-59.
- Nyvad B and Takahashi N. Caries ecology revisited: microbial dynamics and the caries process. Caries Res. 2008;42:409-418.
- Fejerskov O. Changing paradigms in concepts on dental caries: consequences for oral health care. Caries Res. 2004;38:182-191.
- Selwitz R. H., Ismail A. I., Pitts N. B. Dental caries. Lancet. 2007;369(9555):51–59.
- Petersen P. E. The World Oral Health Report 2003: continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003;31:3–23.
- Zainab J., Raghad F., Yasameen A. Correlation between Caries Related Microorganisms in the Dental Plaque and Saliva with Dental Caries Level in the Upper and Lower Jaws in 5-9 Years Old Children in Baghdad City. J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2016;28(3):132-136.
- Suha T and Abbas F. The Effect of Zinc Oxide Nano particles on Streptococcus mutans of Human Saliva (In Vitro Study). J Bagh Coll Dentistry. 2016;28(2):158-164.
- Zaura E., Keijser B. J. F., Huse S. M., Crielaard W. Defining the healthy core microbiome of oral microbial communities. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:259.
- Werneck R. I., Mira M. T., Trevilatto P. C. A critical review an overview of genetic influence on dental caries. Oral Dis. 2010;16(7):613–623.
- Renuka P., Pushpanjali K., Sangeetha R. Review on “Influence of host genes on dental caries.” J Dent Med Sci. 2013;4(3):86–92.
- Vieira A. R., Modesto A., Marazita M. L. Caries: review of human genetics research. Caries Res. 2014;48(5):491–506.
- WHO. Oral health surveys basic methods. 4th ed. World health organization. Geneva Switzerland. 1997.
- Silness J., Löe H. Periodontal disease in pregnancy: Correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condition. Acta Odontol Scand. 1964;22:121–135.
- Ramfjord S. P. Indices for prevalence and incidence of periodontal disease. J Perio. 1959;30:51–59.
- Löe H and Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. Acta Odontol Scand. 1963;21:533–551.
- Ali R. Odon to metric measurements and salivary cortisol among low birth weight 5 years old kindergarten children in relation to dental caries. Master thesis, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. 2013.
- Kishi M., Abe A., Kishi K., Ohara-Nemoto Y., Kimura S., Yonemitsu M. Relationship of quantitative salivary levels of s. mutans and s. sorbinus in mothers to caries status and colonization of mutans streptococci in plaque in their 2.5 year-old children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2009;37: 241-9.
- Renuka P., Pushpanjali K., Sangeetha R. Review on “Influence of host genes on dental caries”. JDMS. 2013;4(3):86-92.
- Opal O., Garg S., Jain J., Walia I. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk. Australian Dental Journal. 2015;60:2–11.
- Kulkarni G. V., Chng T., Eny K. M., et al. Association of GLUT2 and TA S1 R2 geno types with risk for dental caries. Caries Res. 2013;47:219–225.