Prescribing Pattern of Drugs in Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Children Aged 1 To 5 Years At Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital
Sujata Jadhav and Chitra Khanwelkar  

Department of Pharmacology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India.

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Abstract: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) are very common in all age groups. Childhood respiratory tract infections are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. It is significant health problem in India also. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2 million children under five years of age die due to pneumonia. Majority of ARTIs have viral etiology. Rhinoviruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, parainfluenza and influenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, and adenoviruses are main causative agents. Among bacteria, group A streptococci, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, N. meningitides, H. influenzae, pneumococcus and Staphylococcus aureus are responsible for ARTIs. Drug utilization studies help to understand the pattern of prescription in that particular area for specific conditions.We included children from one to five years of age, diagnosed as ARTI and evaluated 298 prescriptions given to these children. Analysis of these prescriptions was done as well as they are compared with WHO prescription indicators. Cough (96%), fever (93%) and rhinitis (82.5%) were common symptoms observed, but sore throat, earache and breathlessness were also present in these children. Average number of drugs prescribed was 4.1/patient. Following drugs were prescribed, Antipyretics 98.3%, antimicrobials 91.3%, antihistaminics and cough syrups in 75.2%, Leukotriene antagonist in 25.1% patients, Vitamin B complex 11% and glucocorticoids 4.6%. All drugs were prescribed by brand names and not by generic name. 97.3% prescribed drugs were from national list of essential medicine. We found overuse of antimicrobials in our study. Educational programs are needed in order to bring rational use of antimicrobials. At the same time awareness in parents also should be done regarding antimicrobial use.

Keywords: ARTI; Antimicrobials; Essential Medicine; Prescriptions; Pediatric; WHO

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