An Overview of the Development and Strengthening of All-Ceramic Dental Materials
Ghassan Abdul-Hamid Naji1, Ros Anita Omar2 and Rosiyah Yahya3

1Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Bab-Almoadham, P.O. Box 1417, Baghdad, Iraq.

2Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

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Abstract: High-strength all-ceramic systems for fixed partial dentures (FPDs) are necessary for replacing missing teeth. The ability to fabricate a restoration outside the mouth and subsequently integrate it with a tooth extends the range of materials available to be utilized by a dentist. This article presents a review of the development of all-ceramic restorations, including the evolution and development of materials, technologies and how to improve the strength of all-ceramic restorations, with respect to survival, applications, strength, color, and aesthetics. New core/framework materials have developed and evolved over the last decade because of the growth of ceramic materials and systems currently available for utilization. A search of English language reviewed literature was undertaken, which focused on the evidence-based published research articles. This review also elucidates the various all-ceramic materials and systems currently available for clinical use, and that no single universal material or system exists for all clinical cases. Successful implementation depends on the clinicians, materials, manufacturing techniques, and individual clinical condition. Further longitudinal clinical studies are recommended for the development of ceramic materials and systems.

Keywords: Aesthetic; All-Ceramic Materials; Aluminum Oxide; CAD/CAM System; Ceramic Strengthening

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