Cannabis Sativa Increases Seizure Severity and Brain Lipid Peroxidation in Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Kindling in Rats
Omar M. E. Abdel-Salam1, Amany A. Sleem2, Marawan Abd El-Baset Mohamed Sayed2, Yasser A. Khadrawy3 and Fatma A. Morsy4

1Department of Toxicology and Narcotics.

2Department of Pharmacology.

3Department of Medical Physiology.

4Department of Pathology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

Corresponding Author E-mail:

Abstract: The effect of Cannabis sativa extract on chemical kindling induced in rats by the repeated intraperitoneal (ip) injections of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was studied. Rats were treated with PTZ (35 mg/kg) once every 48 hours for 12 times alone or with ip Cannabis sativa (20 mg/kg expressed as Δ9-THC content) 30 min prior to PTZ injection. Seizures were recorded for 20 minutes. Control rats received ip saline. Cannabis treatment caused significant elevation of mean seizure score as compared to PTZ only group after the 5th, 6th and 7th PTZ repeated injections during seizure development. In particular, cannabis caused significant elevation in the frequency of myoclonic jerks, rearing (stage 3), turn over onto one side position and back position (stage 4), and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (stage 5) compared with the PTZ only group. PTZ caused significant elevations in brain lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), and nitric oxide along with deceased reduced glutathione level. In addition, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity significantly decreased compared to control value after PTZ treatment. Cannabis given to PTZ treated rats caused significant increase in brain malondialdehyde and AChE activity compared to PTZ only group. Reduced glutathione level was restored by cannabis. Histopathological studies indicated the presence of spongiform changes, degenerated and necrotic neurons, inflammatory cells, and gliosis in cerebral cortex and degeneration of some Purkinje cells in the cerebellum in both PTZ- and cannabis-PTZ-treated groups. It is concluded that in an epilepsy model induced by repeated PTZ administration, cannabis increased lipid peroxidation and mean seizure score.

Keywords: Cannabis Extract; Kindling; Neurodegeneration; Oxidative Stress; Pentylenetetrazole

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