The Significance of Spermidine and Spermine in Association with Atherosclerosis in Sera of Iraqi Patients
Suhad A.Ibrahim1,2, Jwan A. Zainulabdeen1 and Hameed M. Jasim2  

1Department of Chemistry, College of science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

2Department of Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, Al-Nahrain University Baghdad, Iraq.

Corresponding Author E-mail:

Abstract: This study aims to determine the relationship between spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM) with the incidence of atherosclerosis in population of Iraqi patients in comparison with controls. A total of 128 atherosclerosis patients (64 male and 64 female) were included in the present study (aged 45-70 years). They were categorized into two groups: a group that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention catheterization (PCI) and a group that underwent diagnostic catheterization (DIG). 64 age matched, apparently healthy individuals (showing no symptoms of heart disease) of both men and women were also included in the control group (C). Sera were used as samples of the present study; the main measurements included SPD and SPM levels using the HPLC method. Results showed that serum levels of SPD were 631.53 ± 35.637, and 540.49 ± 44.564µg/ml in PCI and DIG patients, respectively. These levels showed significant increases (p˂0.001) when compared to their levels (29.162 ± 6.151µg/ml) in sera of healthy controls. On the other hand, the SPM levels were (159.98 ± 15.981, and 169.85 ±14.606 µg/ml) in PCI and DIG patients, respectively, which also show significant increases (p˂0.001) when compared with the SPM levels (24.26 ± 4.613 µg/ml) in the control group. Moreover, the changes in SPD and SPM levels differed significantly (p˂0.001, and p˂0.05, respectively) according to gender in patient groups. Moreover, it was found that there were positive correlations between sera levels of SPD and SPM in atherosclerosis patients with the levels of white blood cells (WBC) (r=0.58, p˂0.05, r=0.55, p˂0.05), neutrophils (r=0.54, p˂0.05, r=0.51, p˂0.05), lymphocytes (r=0.46, p˂0.05, r=0.48, p˂0.05) and red blood cells (RBC) (r=0.43, p˂0.05, r=0.60, p˂0.01). These results demonstrated that SPD and SPM levels were altered in sera of atherosclerosis patients when compared with the control group. In addition, the data indicated that these patients’ gender played a role in their levels. Generally, correlations were observed among the SPD and SPM levels, the white blood cell differential, and the red blood cells in the sera of atherosclerosis patients.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Spermidine; Spermine;White Blood Cells Counts

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