Pharmacological Investigation of Solanum Incanum Against P. Falciparum, L. infantum, T. cruzi and T. brucei : A Role of Antioxidant Effect and Clinical overview
Sirajudheen Anwar

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Albaha University, P.O. Box 1988, Al-Aqiq, Al-Baha 65431, Saudi Arabia.

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Abstract: The in vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activity of the Solanum incanum leaves and fruit extract of Albaha region was assessed against Plasmodium falciparum (chloroquine resistant K1 strain), Leishmania infantum, two Trypanosoma (T. cruzi and T. brucei) and MRC-5 cell-lines respectively. Additionally, ethnomedicinal studies by survey and interview, antioxidant potential by DPPH assay was studied for Solanum incanum. Results indicated that the S. incanum fruit was inactive (IC50: >64 µg/mL) against P.falcipuram but leaves had shown low activity (IC50: 47 µg/mL), against L.infantum both fruit (IC50: 27.3 µg/mL) and leaves (IC50: 27.3 µg/mL) had good activity, against T.brucei both fruit (IC50: 34.1 µg/mL) and leaves (IC50: 32.7 µg/mL) had moderate activity. S incanum fruits (IC50: 9.3 µg/mL) had pronounced activity against T. cruzi but leaves (IC50: 6.0 µg/mL) had pronounced activity against T .cruzi with selectivity index > 1. Solanum incanum fruits had stronger antioxidant activity (IC5098.7 µg/mL ) than leaves (IC50293.2 µg/mL) but both fruit and leaves had lower antioxidant activity than standards (Ascorbic acid IC5019.1 µg/mL; Trolox IC5019.5 µg/mL). Our results demonstrate that S incanum leaves has promising activity against T .cruzi possibly active constituents like flavonoid, solasonine and solamargine are contributing for this effect. Furthermore previous reports demonstrate that T .cruzi infection is inhibited by antioxidant effects through NRF2 upregulation, possibly our extracts inhibited T .cruzi through antioxidant pathway.

Keywords: Solanum Incanum; Antimalarial; Antileishmaniasis; Antitrypanosomal; Albaha; Saudi Arabia

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