Thyroid Disorders and Semen Quality
Pallav Sengupta and Sulagna Dutta

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, MAHSA University, Jalan SP 2, Bandar Saujana Putra, 42610 Jenjarum, Selangor, Malaysia.

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Abstract: Thyroid hormones and their impacts on male reproduction have been reported in numerous studies in past few decades. They are the crucial players in the regulation of male gonadal developments and reproductive functions. An excess or deficit of thyroid hormones not only alter the testicular functions but also interrupts neuroendocrine axis through the crosstalk between hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. These changes result in decreased testosterone level and altered seminal plasma components which affect semen quality. The reports on the direct effects of thyroid disorders on semen quality are scanty. Thus, this review scrutinizes the available literature and aims to elucidate (a) the normal thyroidal regulations of semen parameters, (b) effects of hypothyroidism on semen quality (c) effects of hyperthyroidism on semen quality, and (d) the possible mechanism of action of thyroid dysfunctions on the alterations of semen quality. This review also highlights the limitations of the studies carried out so far and accentuates the necessity of large-scale human studies and animal studies specifically focusing on the molecular events of thyroid disorder-induced alterations in semen quality.

Keywords: Hypothyroidism; Hyperthyroidism; Semen Quality; Sperm Count; Sperm Motility

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